Learners who, in 2022, will be in primary school Grade 6 under the 2-6-6-3 Competency Based Curriculum (CBC) and those in Standard 8 of the 8-4-4 education system will concurrently transition to Junior Secondary Grade 7 and Secondary Form 1, respectively.
For effectiveness of transition from Primary to Secondary Education of the CBC and 8-4-4 cohorts and domiciling of JSS in the Basic Education structure, critical issues that will influence the double transitions need to be addressed.
These include: a 27% increase in Secondary School learner population in Year 2023 from 4,381,701 to 6,029,168; trends of increased transition from Primary School between Year 2023 and 2025; learner characteristics at transition including changes in psycho- social maturity and age decline from an average of 14-year-olds to 12-year-olds; need for expansion of Secondary School human resource and infrastructure as well as funding of the Secondary Education level.
In this context, the Taskforce makes several recommendations on strategy and two (2) under regulations and policy respectively:
1. Domicile JSS (Grades 7, 8 and 9) in the secondary school structure.
2. Undertake progressive expansion of capacities of existing secondary schools that have adequate land to accommodate more learners in 2023.
3. Make provision for primary schools that have adequate infrastructure to establish a Junior Secondary school.
4. Merge under-enrolled primary schools, in close proximity, and improve the infrastructure in one to create a Junior Secondary School.
5. Develop a framework to facilitate sharing and management of infrastructure among primary and secondary schools that will be established in the same compound.
6. Placement to Junior Secondary Schools be based on formative and summative assessments.
7. Review the Secondary Education Placement guidelines to provide clear criteria, including the use of assessments for placement of learners in Junior Secondary School.
8. Develop a national school transport policy and facilitate establishment of pooled school transport system, where possible, to enhance day schooling.
9. Enhance capacity of the School Equipment Production Unit (SEPU) to facilitate provision of resources for Science kits and other related materials for effective implementation of the Junior and Senior Secondary Education curriculum.
10. Develop regulations on Minimum Quality Education Norms and Standards for Basic Education.
11. Establish multi-agency National, County and Sub-County Transition Committees for effective transition and placement of learners from Primary to Junior Secondary.
12. Consider, on need basis, introduction of Double-Track strategy as an option to manage increased secondary school enrolment.
Policies and Regulations
13. Make regulations that have provisions for schools to run different options to implement the structure of basic education. For example:
a. Stand-alone Pre-Primary 1 and 2;
b. Pre-Primary 1 and 2, and Grades 1, 2 and 3;
c. Pre-Primary 1 and 2, and Grades 1–6;
d. Primary and Junior Secondary School;
e. Junior Secondary school only, especially for private schools which may wish to invest only for this level;
f. Junior and Senior Secondary schools;
g. Senior Secondary School only, especially for private schools which may wish to invest only for this level;
h. Whole school, running from Pre-Primary to Senior Secondary School.
14. Develop a Public–Private Partnership (PPP) policy and a framework for Basic Education to incentivize the private sector to supplement access to basic education.
III: Transitioning Junior Secondary School learners to Senior Secondary School (SSS)
The implementation of the Pathways and Tracks at SSS in 2026, while considering equity and cost effectiveness, raises the issue of adequate preparations in terms of infrastructure and human resources (especially physical infrastructure for STEM and teachers for new learning areas like Sports Science).
This in the context of the Basic Education Curriculum Framework (KICD, 2017) which proposes that 60 per cent of the learners at SSS will
pursue the 4 Tracks in the STEM Pathway. The remaining 25 per cent will pursue Languages and Social Sciences, while 15 per cent will pursue Sports Science, Performing and Visual Arts.
In this context, the Taskforce recommends implementation of the following strategies and policy direction respectively:
1. All 10,359 secondary schools to host both Junior and Senior Secondary school levels.
2. All Senior Secondary Schools to host at least two Pathways for optimal utilization of resources.
3. Identify secondary schools that can host all 3 Senior Secondary School Pathways and progressively enhance their infrastructural capacity.
4. The existing (35) Special Needs Education (SNE) secondary schools be designated to cater for both JSS and SSS for Tracks that the respective SNE learners can pursue in the three Pathways.
5. Implement a Career Guidance programme to prepare learners for choice of Pathways and Tracks in Senior Secondary School.
6. The Guidelines on Basic Standard Requirements for Registration of Educational and Training Institutions (GoK, 2020) be used for preparing schools to host Senior Secondary School Pathways and Tracks.
7. TSC to prepare projections on teacher requirements for reforms in Senior Secondary School.
8. Every County to provide adequate opportunities for access to the 3 Pathways in Senior Secondary School to ensure equity.
9. Placement to SSS be based on formative and summative assessments in JSS and learners’ career choice.
IV: Transition from Basic to Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)
Transition from Basic Education to TVET will be relatively seamless under CBC. This is because learners will have specialized in the relevant areas at Senior Secondary School level, including dual certification depending on learner’s ability and career interests.
Further, some programmes in the TVET sector have adopted CBET which is closely aligned to the CBC approach.
To enhance this transition, the Taskforce makes the following recommendations:
1. TVET CDACC and KICD to review all TVET curriculum which have not yet adopted the CBET approach.
2. MoE to expand infrastructure to support effective delivery of CBET.
3. KNEC, NITA, TVET CDACC and KICD to facilitate optional dual certification for learners in Senior Secondary School depending on their abilities and career interests.
4. MoE to strengthen the capacity of Kenya Technical Training College (KTTC) and Technical Universities to train trainers of TVET.
5. TVETA to establish the National Framework for Incubation Centres in TVET institutions.
6. MoE and CoG to create a framework that facilitates sharing of infrastructure and human resource between the Senior Secondary Schools and TVET institutions.
7. MoE to develop and implement a national programme for career guidance to enhance transition of TVET graduates into the world of work.
8. MoE to fast-track establishment and operationalization of TVET Funding Board as provided for in Article 47 of the TVET Act (2013).
9. MoE to adopt the differentiated unit cost funding model that allows for TVET programmes which require higher unit cost of operation to be adequately funded.
10. MoE to coordinate the training of instructors and trainers and their human resource management to ensure that they acquire relevant content and pedagogical skills.
11. MoE in collaboration with stakeholders to conduct advocacy and publicity campaigns to change the perception of TVET by students and the public.
Regulations and Policy Provisions
12. Strengthen the regulatory scope of TVETA to include all training institutions offering Diploma, Certificate and Artisan courses outside the Ministry of Education.
13. MoE in collaboration with other government agencies to develop a policy framework for collaboration between TVET institutions and the industry to enhance quality and relevance of the curriculum.
V: Transition of the First CBC Cohort from Basic to University Education is envisaged to occur in Year 2029.
The transition to university education has been conceptualized based on the Basic Education Curriculum Framework (KICD, 2017) that articulates the CBC approach, Guiding Principles and the various Pathways and Tracks (KICD, 2017) to be offered in Senior Secondary School.
To prepare for this transition, the Taskforce recommends the following on strategy and policy respectively:
1. CUE to fast-track development and review of university programmes to align with the three pathways offered in Senior Secondary School.
2. MoE to expand infrastructure to offer courses in the three Pathways and 12 Tracks within identified niche areas and localized specializations.
3. Universities to retool lecturers by providing pedagogical training responsive to the CBC approach.
4. CUE to enforce rationalization of lecturer recruitment to meet the changing educational needs in a cost-effective way.
5. CUE to oversee integration of Community Service Learning policy as a critical aspect of university programmes.
VI: Special Needs Education is an integral part of CBC, especially in view of the Mission of Nurturing Every Learner’s Potential, including the gifted and talented.
Although the SNE sub-sector has experienced tremendous growth over the year, there are issues that need to be addressed for effective implementation of the CBC reforms.
These include weak functional assessments; dearth of accurate data on SNE learners nationally; poor transition from primary to secondary school, especially for the hearing impaired and lack of effective programmes for the gifted and talented learners.
To address these issues, the Taskforce recommends the following strategies:
1. MoE to enhance the capacity of the National Psycho Education, Assessment, Research and Rehabilitation Centre at the Kenya Institute of Special Education to assess all areas of special needs, while also acting as the national coordination centre for assessments conducted at the EARCs.
2. MoE to strengthen quality assurance of SNE institutions.
3. MoE fast-track improvement of transition from Primary to Secondary schools for SNE learners.
4. MoE to enhance provision of disability-friendly infrastructure.
5. MoE to strengthen coordination and governance of programmes and institutions in the SNE sub-sector.
6. KNEC to develop effective assessment
7. KICD, MoE and KNEC to provide guidance on implementation of education programmes for gifted and talented learners.
VII: Competency Based Assessment (CBA) is critical for the success of CBC implementation at all levels.
Effective CBA entails a balance between formative and summative assessments to inform both the feedback on learning progress and transition across the various levels of Basic and Tertiary education and training.
The Taskforce recommends that KNEC assumes its leadership role in both policy and strategy for overall assessments at the Basic Education to ensure the following:
Assessment at Pre-primary level will be administered by classroom teachers to inform not only learning progress but also assess readiness for transition to Primary school and advice on required interventions and appropriate placement, especially for children with special needs as well as the talented and gifted.
In addition, KNEC will be responsible for building the capacities of teachers to develop the assessment tools.
Assessment at Primary level will be mainly formative. In Grades 1 to 3, teachers will conduct classroom assessment, and at Grade 3, KNEC will develop a standardized assessment tools to be administered, scored and feedback given to individual learners by teachers in their respective schools.
The schools will then submit the results for each learner in a designated format to KNEC to facilitate analysis of achievement of competencies at national level.
The report from KNEC will guide the teachers receiving the transition Grade 4 and advise TSC in developing content for continuous teacher professional development that targets areas
requiring intervention. Further, KICD will use the report to develop instructional resources that target areas that learners find challenging. KICD will also use the report to revise the curriculum in cases where assessment reports reveal that the curriculum could be the cause of weak achievement.
Assessment in Upper Primary will align to a policy governing the balance between formative and summative to assess comprehensively the mastery of multifarious competencies of different learners as well as facilitate placement of learners in Junior Secondary School.
The mode of assessment will entail a combination of teacher-administered formative assessment in Grades 4, 5 and 6, and a summative assessment to be administered by KNEC at the end of Grade 6.
The proposed weighting is 60% for formative and 40% for summative assessment. The summative assessment is prompted by the need to allow learners from across the country to access schools which have superior infrastructure and a culture of good performance, thus enhancing equity.
Assessment at Junior and Senior Secondary school will be both formative and summative at the end of the cycle.
The Junior Secondary School assessment will facilitate placement in Senior Secondary School Pathways and Tracks, while the Senior Secondary School assessment will facilitate transition into Tertiary and University Education and Training.
At Senior Secondary School, learners will have the opportunity to do dual certification by enrolling for TVET qualifications, depending on their abilities and career interests.
Assessment of Learners with Disabilities and Special Needs, including the gifted and talented, will be determined by the nature and severity of the disability and special need.
For learners with ability to follow the regular curriculum, KNEC will adapt the assessment items, while also providing appropriate time during assessment administration for learners with disabilities.
For those unable to follow the regular curriculum, KNEC will develop a policy for various types of assessments that document the stage- based abilities and fast-tracking of competencies among the gifted learners.
To implement the Competency Based Assessment effectively, the Taskforce makes the following recommendations for KNEC on strategy and policy respectively:
1. Collaborate with TSC to train all teachers on Competency Based Assessment of learners with different abilities;
2. Develop robust ICT systems to support CBA;
3. Develop guidelines and quality controls to ensure the credibility of formative assessments;
4. Collaborate with other assessment bodies for continuous research in CBA.
5. Finalize the Competency Based Assessment Framework (CBAF) and develop related regulations.
VIII: Pre-Service Competency Based Teacher Education (CBTE) will provide the education sector with a valuable opportunity to train teachers on the CBC approach.
The Taskforce engaged in the conceptualization and design of the curriculum by KICD. For effective implementation of the curriculum, the Taskforce makes the following recommendations:
1. MoE should ensure all tutors in pre-service teacher education training colleges are inducted on effective interpretation and implementation of the teacher education curriculum framework and designs.
2. MoE, CUE and Universities should review and align the Teacher Education programmes to CBC and CBA and build the capacity of all university teacher educators in line with the aspirations of CBC.
3. MoE, KICD and KNEC should develop guidelines for micro- teaching and practicum in Teacher Education that will extend the practicum period to a minimum of two school terms.
4. KNEC to design a framework for implementing CBA in Pre- Service Teacher Education CBA for both formative and summative assessment.
5. KICD to develop a Certificate Course for Teacher Educators.
6. TSC to develop career progression guidelines for teacher educators for TTCS.
7. TSC to review Continuous Teacher Professional Development (CTPD) performance appraisal systems to align them to the dictates of CBC.
8. MoE, TSC, teacher unions, head teachers and principals’ associations, and universities will establish a joint educators’ professional regulatory body.
Policy and Regulation Provisions
9. MoE and TSC, in collaboration with other stakeholders, will develop a Teacher Education Policy that anchors teacher education within the broad philosophy of education of participatory experiential learning.
10. MoE should develop and enforce minimum standards for the infrastructure and resources necessary for institutions to establish and implement Pre-Service Teacher Education at all levels.
IX: Design and Implementation of Parental Empowerment and Engagement (PEE), Value-Based Education (VBE) and Community Service Learning (CSL) Programmes
The Basic Education Curriculum Framework (KICD, 2017) emphasizes the importance of Parental Empowerment and Engagement (PEE), Value-Based Education (VBE) and Community Service Learning (CSL) for holistic development of the learners and a transformation of the Kenyan society to embrace acceptable values and community service ethos.
For effective implementation of PEE, VBE and CSL, the Taskforce makes the following recommendations on policy and strategy respectively:
1. MoE to conduct a review of existing policies to ensure they accommodate PEE, VBE and CSL.
2. MoE to develop and strengthen partnerships and collaborations with all education stakeholders for implementation of PEE, VBE and CSL.
3. KNEC to develop appropriate mechanisms for assessment of VBE and CSL.
4. KICD to design public education programmes for engaging and sensitizing communities on PEE, VBE and CSL.
5. MoE, KICD, Parents Association and TSC to develop guidelines on how to empower teachers and parents/guardians through appropriate platforms to play their role effectively in parenting.
6. MoE to develop guidelines for Quality Assurance and Standards for effective implementation of VBE and CSL.
7. MoE to collaborate with other MDAs to explore design and implementation of a 1 Year Community Service Programme for all students graduating from universities and colleges.
8. MoE to enhance financial support for effective implementation of PEE, VBE and CSL.
X: Policy and Legal Issues for Effective Curriculum Reforms Implementation are pertinent concerns in enhancing effective implementation of the CBC.
In this context, the Taskforce recommends to MoE to facilitate the development of new policies and strategies, and review of existing ones in response to the CBC reforms as follows:
1. National Education Sector Strategic Plan, 2018‒2022 (mid- term review);
2. Sector policies on:
a. Teacher Education (review),
b. Quality Assurance and Standards (review),
c. Guidance and Counselling, mentorship and coaching (review),
d. ICT integration in education (new),
e. VBE, CSL, PEE and co-curricular activities (new),
f. School transport (new),
g. Career Guidance for CBC (new),
h. Monitoring and Evaluation policy and strategy (new).
XI: Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Strategy and Framework for Supporting Effective Implementation of Curriculum Reforms
Will be key in providing a basis for generating data that will allow tracking the process and measuring the achievements of CBC and eventually reporting on its outcomes and impact.
M&E will also enable the country to identify areas for intervention in the course of CBC implementation. To establish an effective M&E strategy and framework, the Taskforce makes the following recommendations to the MoE on strategy and policy respectively:
1. Establish a comprehensive CBC M&E System.
2. Embrace and align the relevant laws to help govern the use of technology to access and use education data other related information.
3. Establish a CBC Taskforce Report Implementation and Transition Delivery Unit to coordinate implementation of the Taskforce report and transition, especially in 2023.
4. Establish and operationalize a multi-sectoral M&E Technical Working Group to create synergy in:
a. Establishing an integrated multisectoral M&E system to strengthen curriculum reforms implementation and ensure realization of the set targets;
b. Building the M&E and impact assessment practice in the curriculum reforms;
c. Ensuring integration of state and non-state actors in the MoE reporting processes;
d. Strengthening capacities for M&E at all levels of education and across key education sector actors; and
e. Undertaking annual CBC implementation review, and producing Annual CBC implementation report and regular CBC M&E reports.
5. Develop and operationalize a Curriculum Reforms M&E Framework and Strategy with clear indicators for monitoring: the human, capital, technological and financial inputs; reform implementation process; and outputs and outcomes.
6. Link the M&E framework with Standards and Quality Assurance system to facilitate tracking of the M&E indicators.
7. Develop and operationalize an all-inclusive Education Sector M&E Policy and Strategy.
XII: Standards and Quality of Basic Education and Training for Effective Implementation of Curriculum Reforms
Will ensure that CBC will be rolled out with fidelity to the aspirations of the BECF and related curriculum designs. To this end, this Taskforce recommends that MoE facilitates a review of the quality assurance approach to allow for the following strategic actions:
1. Adoption of a system-oriented model that shifts the focus of SQA away from a tight alignment to structures and use of narrowly defined standards to system innovation and continuous improvement while integrating both internal and external QA strategies that have well-defined quality standards, indicators and roles for the internal and external SQA actors.
2. Adoption of a reporting structure with concurrent (administrative and functional) accountability to the CS Education, PS State Department of Early Learning and Basic Education, and the Director General.
3. Strengthening the funding of human and institutional capacities of the DQAS for effective delivery of the external QA statutory and advisory mandate.
4. Adoption of a multi-agency approach in QA, with integration of local, professional expertise through inter- and intra-sectorial collaborations to leverage on available resources.
5. Clarification of the role of MoE and TSC QA to avoid unnecessary overlaps.
6. Development of well-defined minimum quality standards and indicators for the Basic Education and Training sub-sector that is aligned with the CBC.
7. Adoption of an operational structure that adopts Education Zones as the implementation centres, for enhanced reach of SQA activities.
8. Mapping of specific institutions to officers for hand-holding, coaching, mentoring and accountability reporting.
9. Scaling up the SQA to termly assessments for Pre-primary and Primary schools and annually for Secondary schools and TTCs.
10. Facilitation of quarterly monitoring and reporting on compliance with identified all-round education quality indicators.
11. Automation of the SQA processes guided by operational guidelines, standards and monitoring tools coupled with functional linkages to NEMIS.
12. Adoption of a hybrid model of reporting on self-evaluation and external SQA assessment with stakeholder dissemination and website publishing.
13. Conducting of continuous training for institutional administrators, BoMs, HoDs, teachers and parents to strengthen their IQA expertise, support for supervision, instructional leadership, and M&E of education.
14. Establishment and operationalization of subject panels at institutional and Zonal levels while leveraging on best practices such as Key Resource Teachers.
15. Development and dissemination of an Annual National QA Report on the status of education SQA, based on the overall QA parameters.
XIII: Governance, Financing and Integration of ICT Governance, financing and integration of ICT in the Education Sector
Will be critical for efficient and effective implementation of the CBC. There is need for transformations in teaching and learning processes based on new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st century skills that requires leveraging on ICT integration.
This has potential to improve not only the quality of educational administration and delivery of programmes and services but also enhance education access, equity and quality.
The Taskforce addresses the pertinent issues thematically and makes recommendations accordingly.
[A] To strengthen good governance, this Taskforce recommends that MoE facilitates:
1. Focused analyses of the functions of the Ministry of Education and its implementing agencies as well as the Teachers Service Commission to identify areas that require strengthening synergies and restructuring that are responsive to CBC implementation.
2. Adoption of Results and Efficiency Oriented Governance and Financing System (REOGFS) that will help create an ecosystem for efficient and cost-effective delivery of CBC reforms.
3. Review of the governance structure to identify and strengthen weak institutional linkages with the aim of creating synergy for effective implementation of CBC throughout the Education Sector.
4. Development of a coordination framework that will strengthen linkages with County governments, private sector, development partners and all non-state actors to support effective implementation of the curriculum reforms.
5. Development of Partnership and Principles Agreement for education and training.
6. Establishment of a framework for capacity building of Education officers, CEB members, BOM members, Parents Association members, Education Managers and other key stakeholders in education.
[B] With regard to financing of the CBC, the Taskforce recommends that MoE:
1. Develops a needs-based unit-cost of all the education levels that include Pre-primary, Primary, Junior Secondary, Senior Secondary, Special Needs Education, Teacher Education, and Technical and University Education in harmony with the CBC while considering equity and quality requirements.
2. Reviews the Governance structures and Accountability Action Plan to ensure accountability of resources and actions by management personnel.
3. Develops a Resource Mobilization Strategy for Education and
Training while encouraging Public Private Partnerships.
4. Institutionalize Sector Wide Approaches (SWAP) for education planning, budgeting and programme implementation.
5. Institutionalize annual education sector Public Expenditure Reviews and Public Expenditure Tracking in context of CBC implementation.
[C] For ICT integration, this Taskforce recommends that MoE:
1. Develops a Policy Framework and Strategy for e-learning, online assessment, professional development and governance of education while considering equity in access that is supported by relevant technology.
2. Strengthens the capacity of teachers and education administrators in effective use of ICT for teaching, learning, assessment and management.
3. Establishes an ICT integration in education support system at the national, county, sub-county, zonal and institutional levels.
XIV: Comprehensive Communication on Implementation of the Curriculum Reforms Communication
Is integral to the success of curriculum reforms implementation. Effective communication has considerable potential to counter inaccurate information whose effects often mislead and hamper desired progress.
To address this issue, the Taskforce recommends to the MoE the following strategies:
1. Prioritize the development of a comprehensive communication strategy that underscores accuracy in the sharing of CBC information, purposeful advocacy and campaigns, consistent social mobilization and community engagements.
2. Invest in public and stakeholder awareness creation of the CBC that enhances elimination of propaganda.
3. Create an annual budget to support communication on CBC implementation activities.